How do we hear
How do we hear
Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of permanent hearing loss and occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the nerve pathways from the ear to the brain. Sensorineural hearing loss can occur following exposure to loud and prolonged noise which may be experienced in work environments without hearing protection and/or during noisy leisure activities such as listening to music with headphones/earbuds with the volume setting at one-half of maximum or higher, attending sporting events or concerts. Other possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss include aging, drug use toxic to hearing, hereditary or genetic factors, smoking, head trauma, and malformation of the inner ear. Note 11
Audiometric tests were administered as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to assess sensorineural hearing loss in children and adults aged 6 to 79. In this article, hearing loss was defined as an audiometric speech-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz frequencies) pure-tone average greater than 15 decibels (dB), in one or both ears based on the hearing loss ranges published by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). Note 8 The Awareness of hearing loss was based on whether or not the respondent answered “yes” to the question “Has a health professional ever diagnosed you with a hearing problem?”Note 10
Otoscopy, tympanometry, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) tests were also conducted on respondents aged 3 to 79. Tympanometry measures the mobility of the eardrum and the pressure of the middle ear system. DPOAE measures the function of the cochlea in the inner ear. Both DPOAE and tympanometry can be used to evaluate conductive hearing loss, which is caused by problems in the outer and/or middle ear, such as excessive wax, ear infections, or fluid build-up. This form of hearing loss can occur independently or in conjunction with sensorineural hearing loss. Note 12
Quick Statistics About Hearing
- About 2 to 3 out of every 1,000 children in the United States are born with a detectable level of hearing loss in one or both ears.1
- More than 90 percent of deaf children are born to hearing parents.2
- Approximately 15% of American adults (37.5 million) aged 18 and over report some trouble hearing.3
- Among adults aged 20-69, the overall annual prevalence of hearing loss dropped slightly from 16 percent (28.0 million) in the 1999-2004 period to 14 percent (27.7 million) in the 2011–2012 period.4
- Age is the strongest predictor of hearing loss among adults aged 20-69, with the greatest amount of hearing loss in the 60 to 69 age group.4
- Men are almost twice as likely as women to have hearing loss among adults aged 20-69.4
- Non-Hispanic white adults are more likely than adults in other racial/ethnic groups to have hearing loss; non-Hispanic black adults have the lowest prevalence of hearing loss among adults aged 20-69.4
- About 18 percent of adults aged 20-69 have speech-frequency hearing loss in both ears from among those who report 5 or more years of exposure to very loud noise at work, as compared to 5.5 percent of adults with speech-frequency hearing loss in both ears who report no occupational noise exposure.4
- One in eight people in the United States (13 percent, or 30 million) aged 12 years or older has hearing loss in both ears, based on standard hearing examinations.5
- About 2 percent of adults aged 45 to 54 have disabling hearing loss. The rate increases to 8.5 percent for adults aged 55 to 64. Nearly 25 percent of those aged 65 to 74 and 50 percent of those who are 75 and older have disabling hearing loss.6
- Roughly 10 percent of the U.S. adult population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past year.7
- About 28.8 million U.S. adults could benefit from using hearing aids.8
- Among adults aged 70 and older with hearing loss who could benefit from hearing aids, fewer than one in three (30 percent) has ever used them. Even fewer adults aged 20 to 69 (approximately 16 percent) who could benefit from wearing hearing aids have ever used them.9
- As of December 2012, approximately 324,200 cochlear implants have been implanted worldwide. In the United States, roughly 58,000 devices have been implanted in adults and 38,000 in children.10
- Five out of 6 children experience ear infections (otitis media) by the time they are 3 years old.11
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Identifying infants with hearing loss - United States, 1999-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 59(8): 220-223.
- Vohr B. Overview: infants and children with hearing loss—part I. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2003;9:62–64.
- Mitchell RE, Karchmer MA. Chasing the mythical ten percent: Parental hearing status of deaf and hard of hearing students in the United States.(link is external) (PDF) Sign Language Studies. 2004;4(2):138-163.
- Blackwell DL, Lucas JW, Clarke TC. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012 (PDF). National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(260). 2014.
- Hoffman HJ, Dobie RA, Losonczy KG, Themann CL, Flamme GA. Declining Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Adults Aged 20 to 69 Years(link is external). JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery. December 2016 online.
- Lin FR, Niparko JK, Ferrucci L. Hearing loss prevalence in the United States.(link is external) [Letter] Arch Intern Med. 2011 Nov 14; 171(20): 1851-1852.
- Based on calculations performed by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) using data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); (2) applying the definition of disabling hearing loss used by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Expert Hearing Loss Team (hearing loss of 35 decibels or more in the better ear, the level at which adults could generally benefit from hearing aids).
- Based on calculations performed by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); (2) the estimated number of American adults reporting tinnitus was calculated by multiplying the prevalence of tinnitus by the 2013 U.S. Census population estimate for the number of adults (18+ years of age).
- NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program, based on December 2015 Census Bureau estimates of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population, personal communication; May 2016.
- Based on calculations by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff using data collected by (1) the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) annually for a number of persons who have ever used a hearing aid [numerator], and (2) periodic NHANES hearing exams for representative samples of the U.S. adult and older adult population [denominator]; these statistics are also used for tracking Healthy People 2010 and 2020 objectives. See also Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss (chart).
- Estimates based on manufacturers’ voluntary reports of registered devices to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, December 2012.
- Teele DW, Klein JO, Rosner B. Epidemiology of otitis media during the first seven years of life in children in greater Boston: a prospective, cohort study. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jul;160(1):83-94.
Don't wait! Schedule your FREE consultation today.
Don't wait! Schedule your FREE consultation today.